Biodiversity Intactness Index (BII) - years 1900-2014 (1)

49-100% *

* A value around 50% indicates that the species originally present are on average only half as abundant compared with pristine conditions (pre-industrial climate period)

Built-up areas (2)

(1) Tim Newbold; Lawrence N Hudson; Andrew P Arnell; Sara Contu et al. (2016). Dataset: Global map of the Biodiversity Intactness Index, from Newbold et al. (2016) Science. Natural History Museum Data Portal (

(2) Corbane, C., Florczyk, A., Pesaresi, M., Politis, P., Syrris, V. (2018): GHS built-up grid, derived from Landsat, multitemporal (1975-1990-2000-2014), R2018A. European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC)