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Using Land Degradation Neutrality as a pathway to climate security and protect indigenous women’s rights

By 2050, the global population is expected to be 9.7 billion, increasing the demand for agricultural products including food, feed, fibre, and fuel. About 25% of the total global land area has been affected by land degradation.

It is estimated that in the drylands, 12 million hectares of land are becoming degraded by desertification processes annually. Globally, 1.5 billion people are affected by land degradation, especially rural communities, smallholder farmers, and the very poor 70% of the world’s poorest people live in rural areas and depend on agriculture for their livelihoods

Land and forest degradation threaten the livelihoods, well-being, food, water, and energy security and increase the vulnerability of millions of people. Pressures on the global land resource are increasing because of: the growing demand for food and agricultural commodities, both quantity and quality, for a growing and more affluent world population; competition for productive land for biofuel, urban expansion, and other non-productive uses; decreasing or lack of growth in productivity due to declines in soil health; weakened resilience of agricultural production systems because of depleted biodiversity and ecosystem services; and natural factors such as climate variability and extreme weather events.

In 2015 the UNCCD introduced the new concept of Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN), which was later adopted as a target of Goal 15 of the Sustainable Development Goals, Life on Land, “By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought, and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation neutral world.” Over 120 countries have committed to pursue voluntary LDN targets.

The objectives of LDN are to:

• maintain or improve the sustainable delivery of ecosystem services;

• maintain or improve productivity, in order to enhance food security;

• increase resilience of the land and populations dependent on the land;

• seek synergies with other social, economic and environmental objectives; and

• reinforce responsible and inclusive governance of land.

The fundamental aim of LDN is to preserve the land resource base, by ensuring no net loss of healthy and productive land, at the national level. This goal can be achieved through a combination of measures that avoid, reduce and reverse land degradation (Fig 1). Achieving LDN requires estimating the expected cumulative impacts of land use and land management decisions, and counterbalancing anticipated losses through strategically-planned rehabilitation or restoration of degraded land, within the same land type.

LDN is defined as “a state whereby the amount and quality of land resources necessary to support ecosystem functions and services and enhance food security remain stable or increase within specified temporal and spatial scales and ecosystems.” Decision 3/COP.12, UNCCD 2015


Land Degradation and Women’s rights

Widespread and unprecedented rapid degradation of land threatens food production, water availability, and biodiversity, and energy security worldwide. Land degradation contributes to climate change, deepens poverty, and induces displacement and migration, while those forces, in turn, worsen land degradation. When land is degraded and usable land becomes scarce, women are uniquely and differentially affected given their substantial role in agriculture and food production, greater vulnerability to poverty, and typically weaker legal protections and social status. Women constitute the majority of farmers in many of the regions most severely affected by desertification, land degradation, and drought. Nearly 80 percent of employed women in the least developed countries report agriculture as their primary source of livelihood, while women comprise 43 percent of the world’s agricultural labor force. While they often serve as environmental stewards, women tend to: be excluded from participation and leadership in conservation and management of land, lack access to agricultural extension services and institutional credit, and encounter barriers to participation in development, planning, and policymaking processes. Unlike men, women often have less access to information, resources, and legal rights to land, natural and productive resources. Unequal power relations and gender-based discrimination in legal and customary systems in many societies even deny women user rights to plant trees, control soil degradation and enhance soil fertility.


Environmental Defenders actions

It is for these reasons that The Environmental Defenders supports Land Degradation Neutrality, including through the conservation of forest ecology and the use of nature-based solutions as a strategy of defense against climate change. Promoting equitable governance, effective management and positive conservation outcomes. We believe that accepted environmental and human rights principles embody the right of everyone to a secure, healthy and ecologically sound environment, and that environmental degradation leads to human rights violations such as the right to life, health, and culture. These are the different actions through which Environmental Defenders is implementing its program to contribute to the LDN; Trees planting and reforestation, seed banking and collection, biodiversity monitoring, land purchase, and acquisition for reforestation, wildlife and plants protection, documentation of environmental crimes, environmental education, and awareness campaigns; Mobilization of rural communities to advocate and take direct action against illegal land sales, and forced evictions taking place without their Free, Prior, and Informed Consent, provide direct legal support, map, and document land rights violations; direct support to women land rights activists and environmental human rights defenders. Creating opportunities for wildlife and people to co-exist; Strengthening women’s land rights and access to resources and improving the living conditions of indigenous populations affected by the impacts of land and environmental degradation.

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BLOG Conservation Defend Defenders Human rights Report

Appeal to Ugandan Government and Oil companies operating in the Albertine Region

Women Environmental Human Rights Defenders – WEHRDs are any individual or group working to protect or promote human rights in the context of the environment, such as the defense of land rights, access to natural resources and the right to a healthy environment, and that they are often members of indigenous and traditional communities who play a key role in combating environmental crime.

The United Nations Declaration on Human Rights recognized for the full and effective implementation, and for promoting respect, support and protection for the activities of human rights defenders, including women and indigenous human rights defenders which is essential to the overall enjoyment of human rights and for the protection and conservation of the environment, including the rights to life, to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, to an adequate standard of living, including adequate food and housing, and to safe drinking water and sanitation, and cultural rights.

However, in recent years, there have been an increasing rate of killings, violent acts, including gender-based violence, threats, harassment, intimidation, smear campaigns, criminalization, judicial harassment, forced eviction and displacement of environmental human rights defenders, including indigenous and women human rights defenders particularly, and other human rights defenders addressing issues relating to land rights.

Across the world, more than 212 land and environmental defenders were killed in 2019 an average of more than four people a week. Of these, over 1 in 10 defenders killed were women. Mining, agribusiness and logging were the major sectors linked to the most murders and increasing security threats globally. Over two-thirds of killings took place in Latin America, which has consistently ranked the worst-affected region since Global Witness began to publish data in 2012. Verifying cases from Africa continues to be difficult due to limited monitoring of the issue by civil society, media repression and localised conflict mean attacks are probably underreported in some regions according to the Global Witness.

WEHRD’s are particularly targeted because they act and speak out against environmental harms and human rights abuse thus they have increasing targeted with gender-specific threats, including sexual violence, violence against their children another family member.

Environmental Defenders – ED is working closely with the communities in the Albertine region of Uganda that suffer the direct consequences of environmental harms and human rights violations linked to mining, agribusiness and logging through providing digital and physical protection for WEHRD’s and their organizations as well as communities. Providing emergency psychosocial support and legal advice to WEHRD’s and their organizations as well as communities at the grassroots level in the region.

The communities that ED supports are those negatively impacted by the ongoing Oil and gas exploration activities with their associated negative impacts on the environment and the human rights of the populations residing in the areas affected by the oil project, and which they attribute to a diverse range of actors. In particular, in particular, communities right to land, housing, and an adequate standard of living, the right to health and clean water and the right to a healthy environment have been negatively affected. The violations of these rights are inextricably related to violations of the right to information, the right to participation, and the right of access to justice perpetrated by the Oil project by China National Offshore Oil Corporation – CNOOC and Total Uganda ltd.

The activities of WEHRD’s and their organizations as well as communities are met with constant Government harassment and restrictions, along with the threat of various forms of repression. For example, Police raids and administrative and judicial harassment are used as deterrents against the work of WEHRD’s and their organisations. This worrying context for human rights sets a negative precedent that may aggravate the impacts of the activities of the oil industry.

Environmental Defenders – ED demand the Ugandan government and oil companies:

  • to listen to Women Environmental Human Rights Defenders – WEHRD’s and to apply specific urgent protective and preventive measures in order to reduce the alarming numbers of threats and violence against WEHRD’s and their organizations;
  • (Government) to respect, protect, and fulfill human rights, including in all actions undertaken to address environmental challenges, including the rights to life and to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, to an adequate standard of living, to adequate food and housing, safe drinking water and sanitation, and cultural rights, and to human rights as they relate to the enjoyment of a safe, clean, healthy and sustainable environment;
  • (Government) to adopt and uphold laws aimed at the protection of WEHRD’s and other human rights defenders and, to put in place holistic protection measures for, and in consultation with, WEHRD’s and other human rights defenders and communities, and to ensure accountability and prosecution for threats and attacks against women environmental human rights defenders in the Albertine region.